Glossary

GLOSSARY

Little glossary

 
Term Definition

Adjustment

Action to put every currency in the weight which she has to have. Operation generally made with a file.

Alloy

Combination of several metals

Anepigraphe

Coin not containing legend on its surface

Antique currency

Currency previous to the fall of the Roman Empire

Antoninien

Roman currency struck in great quantities from the IIIth century

Artifact

Error in the manufacturing

Assignat

Bills emitted during the French Revolution, in the years 1790-1796. They were guaranteed by the sale of the goods of the Church which had been seized.

Axe

Orientation of places one to another, most of the time expressed in hours. In the XIXth and XXth centuries the axis was generally at 6 am, it was about a said strike " in currency ". With the Euro, we passed in a strike at 12 am, said " in medal " according to the German tradition. To obtain the axis of a coin, take it between the thumb and the index, the obverse in the face in front of you, in the place. Make the currency revolve from left to right, so as to be able to read the lapel: if the lapel is in the place, it is a strike "awards a medal"; if the lapel is back to front, it is a strike "exchanges"

BE

Quality of strike said " Beautiful Test ", recognizable in the matt aspect of reliefs on a bottom mirror. By extension, we call " a BE " a casket including supposed currencies to be in quality BE

Billon

Mixture of copper and money being of use to the manufacturing of certain currencies such as the antoniniens of the time of Roman Empire

Bimetallic or two-colored

Says himself of a currency established by two different metallic elements

Blank

Piece of blank metal of any imprint, intended to be struck by means of corners

Bracteate

Silver very thin currency struck only on a face.

Break

Concern the place with which currencies are struck. In the time (XIXth century), places were very expensive. The incentive to use them even once broken was thus very strong in spite of the effects of "break" that it entrainait on the coin. To note that the effect "break" of the coin is so relief because the stripe is in hollow in the area

Break of coin

When has corner kick (place) is broken ("cracked"), it talk has relief mark one tea currencies which it strikes. In theory, tea worker loaded tea machine has to spot has broken to fold and destroy currencies struck with, drank very often, thesis currencies find themselves in traffic. Belgium produces numerous currencies struck with has broken to fold

BU

Quality of said strike " Glittering Universal ", corresponding to a new normal coin. By extension, we call " one BU " a casket understanding supposed currencies to be in quality BU

Cap

( Also sayid tréflage). Currency resulting from a strike made twice. If the tréflage is light, he can have only a quite small part of the currency there which is divided into halves; if the tréflage is more important, the currency can be then totally deformed

Carat

In the monetary domain, the measure of the purity of the gold (the "titration", the title being the proportion of fine gold contained by a currency) is made in thousandth. For example the French coins of 20 gold francs have a title of 900 thousandth (or 900/1000), what means that they contain 9 golden parts for a brass part.

The symbolized carat "ct" is a measure of purity of precious metals such as the gold. One carat represents 1/24th of the total mass of an alloy.

For example, some gold in 18 carats means that in 24 grams of alloy, we find 18 grams of pure gold. Some gold in 24 carats is some pure gold. The gold is a particularly moldable metal. It is the reason which explains that golden currencies intended for the traffic never consist of pure gold but a mixture of gold and of copper or money.

Certificate of authenticity

Certificate emitted by an institute of broadcast, allowing to guarantee the authenticity of a casket or a not circulating commemorative currency. Generally, caskets Beautiful Test contain a certificate of authenticity while caskets Glittering Universal do not contain it. We specify however this information for every casket in the column "Caskets". As for the not circulating commemorative currencies, they possess it in the majority of the cases, even if it is not systematic

Classic art

Currency previous to the fall of the Roman Empire.

Coin

Coin of metal, generally steel and cylindrical, one which is engraved in hollow the imprint of has currency. Currencies struck by means of two are corner kicks, the to fold  of pile and the to fold of face. According to the strike, corner kicks wear out and pass of the state "Fleur de Coin" in has more and more pronounced crushing. So, the expression "Fleur de Coin" does not indicate originally the state of (supplement) conservation of the currency drank that of the to fold. We keep the naming " FDC " for currencies because it is attested at least since the dictionary of what is Furetière ( 1690 ) to train enough all the same to deserve the respect. The state of conservation of corner kicks is nevertheless essential in the evaluation of has currency - of any period - have soon have we achieve and especially exceed the Magnificent ( SPL). To estimate the state of conservation of corner kicks, examines through has magnifying glass (examine in great detail) the finest details of the currency : It is them who dull most fast. The various most of the time the finest are details of has currency

Commemorative (Coin)

Exchange whose strike is motivated by a precise event. They can be "circulating", struck in the usual metal for the face value and in the quantity which allows actually the traffic in the public. These perfectly justifiable currencies are classified in the column "Active money". They can be also made strictly for collectors, usually in precious metals and sold more expensively than their face value in magnificent packagings and provided with amply signed and sealed certificates. Although it is officially possible to pay with for their face value, they are monétiformes medals, said " currencies for collectors "; they are classified in this case in the column " not circulating commemorative Currencies ". Also let us note that certain "commemorative" currencies commemorate exactly nothing particular. For example, the series "Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte" struck in 2006 by the Currency of Paris is in the simple effigy of the the aforementioned character, unless no event is commemorated. In keeping with other series of the institute, we include however these currencies in the column" not circulating commemorative Currencies "

Courts

Value of a currency quoted in stock exchange (golden, money) at the precise moment. A course implies a very big quantity of buyers and potential sellers

Cropping

Indicate the illegal practice consisting in recovering by filing a part of the noble metal from which is made the coin

Crown

On a bimetallic, an outside part of the currency surrounding the heart (or " insert ")

Demonetisation

Mark the end of the possibility of exchanging a currency previously out-of-the-way. A demonetized coin is worth her value "numismatics" (provided that it has one) and either his "facial" value

Different

Personal mark affixed on a currency by the engraver and / or the director of a monetary workshop or by the general engraver. The various are indicated next to every currency in the column "Active money". According to currencies, he can have one, two there or no various. You will find more information on the various in the column "Country"

Difformation

Practice consisting in destroying a currency by making it lose its shape. A currency is for example difformée in a monetary workshop if it contains an error of strike. The difformed currency is then sent to a caster to get back the metal

Ecu

Royal or feudal golden currency raising an ecu. The term then became widespread until indicate big silver coins such as the 5-franc coins of the XIXth century

Effigy

Main drawing (often an other or princely portrait) on the obverse of a currency

Electrum

Indicate the natural alloy of money and gold to make certain currencies in Antiquity

Engraver

Author of a work from a matrix which allows to realize an original awl. Corners are engraved by means of awls executed by the general engraver

Face value

Value indicated to the lapel and for which the currencywas put into service

False coin

Not authentic coin

FDC (Fleur De Coin)

This very former term (Dictionary of Furetière, on 1690) defines at the same time a quality of corner - this one must be new - and a conservation of the currency - this one must be flawless. This explains that we tolerate strikes of "normal" quality up to the states of preservation SPL 63 or 64 but that the FDC 65 state requires an excellent strike, the state 66 and beyond a strike and perfect corners. Naturally, it is on no account because FDC is registered on the box that the contained coins are actually of quality FDC

Ferrule

For several centuries, currencies are struck in ferrules; it is in our time about metallic rings into which come to fit custard tarts before the strike. If the ferrule is grooved, the coin will have a slice grooved struck time, the metal having been hunted during the strike in the grooves of the ferrule. To note that for the coins of 2 euro, the inscriptions of the Dutch, Finnish or still Austrian currencies are marked on the custard tart before the strike; streak only them are then burnt by means of the ferrule

Field

Part of the currency left flat, on which no motive was engraved. According to the preparation for the monetary workshop and/or the state of the corner, he can have an aspect "mirror", an aspect "tanned custard tart", to be brilliant or dull as reliefs

Flagship

Indicates the present ornament on the royal French currencies and representing a flower with four, five or six petals

General engraver

Indicate the author responsible for the engraving of a monetary type

Ghost

Indicate the appearance in light relief of the lapel of the currency on the obverse or the obverse on the lapel. Often occurs on the fine coins with a relief importing on one of the two faces

Grenetis

Example says to itself to points representing the outside circle of a coin as on the 1-centime coin of the year 6)

Heart

(Also says to itself insert) On a bimetallic, internal part of the currency surrounded by the crown

Heraldry

The heraldry is the science of the blazon, that is the study of coat of arms (or weapons). It is also a field of artistic expression, an element of the medieval right of Ancien Régime. At present, sit establishes an auxiliary science of the history in the same way as the sigillographie, the vexillologie, the phaléristique, the diplomatic …

Histamenon

Name given to the Xth century in Solidus Byzantin after a monetary reform

Hybrid

Currency associating an obverse and a lapel belonging to currencies of different types. There are also hybrid currencies associating two obverses or two lapels of the same type

Increase a currency

Attribute it a state of preservation

Incuse

Currency the motives for which are in hollow accidentally of strike

Insculper

Indicate the fact of standing out in hollow by means of an awl

Insert

(Also says to itself heart) on a bimetallic, an internal part of the currency surrounded by the crown

Issue

It is the entry into service of a quantity defined of currency to the same type

Laminating

Manufacturing process by plastic deformation. This deformation is obtained by continuous compression in the passage between two cylinders turning in opposite senses called rolling mill. It aims at the reduction of thickness of the metal and its consolidation. In case of defect of lamination, the currency can have a very abrupt surface

Lapel

Concerning the currency on whom is placed the face value and/or which does not bear the name of the broadcasting power. This rule is not always respected for the euro

LEF

Acronym of Freedom Equality Brotherhood sometimes used in certain books specialized to indicate the registrations on a slice

Legal tender

The maximal amount which we can pay legally with copies of the same currency

Legend

Indicate the text surrounding the effigy of a coin

Liard

Royal currency amounts to three deniers

Matrix

Relief original realized by the artist or the general engraver from which we make corners hollow

Matt blank

Says to himself of a currency in the satiny aspect because made by means of covered with sand corners

Medieval contribution

Currency amounts in the middle of a denier

Moderns

Coins having been current after the French Revolution

Module

Diameter, weight and title of a coin

Monetary Institute

National entity on which depends one or several monetary workshops. We shall so say that the Currency of Paris is a monetary institute and that the monetary workshop of Pessac depends on it

Monetary workshop

It is the place where are made currencies, where coins are struck. To note that for the French currencies, around thirty workshops was listed in the XIXth and XXth centuries

Monnaie(Currency)

With a capital letter, the Currency, a shortcut to indicate the monetary institute of a country: the Currency of Paris, for example

Motto

Indicate the top of the currency often bounded by a called line " milked by motto " and situated under the main type

Nickel Silver

Alloy white with copper (67 %) of zinc (18 %) and of nickel (15 %) invented in 1820 and being of use to the manufacturing of certain coins

Numismeter Standard

Instrument used in the XIXth and XXth and serving to determine the authenticity of a coin by weighing her

Obsidional

Currency of necessity emitted in certain cities during a seat or of shady economic period

Obverse

Concerning the coin on which is placed the representation of the broadcasting authority which guarantees the value of the currency. This rule is not still respected for the euro

Over-the-counter

Indicate the type or the state of preservation for which a coin cannot be reasonably estimated because of its rarity. On Arguses numismatics, the values except quotation are often represented by a small horizontal line. The possible value of the currency is then determined by the price accepted by the seller and whom the buyer would be ready to put to buy it

Patina

Indicate the reaction or the phenomenon of light oxidation of a currency due to its exhibition in the oxygen and in the present chemical particles in the air. The money turns yellow, the aluminum tarnishes for example. The warned numismatists know that you should never attack the patina of a coin when we wish to clean her. It is moreover advised to clean coins in the soap of Marseille and in the toothbrush to protect the patina of the coin

Piefort

Currency much wider than the coin in circulation and serving as model for the various workshops

Poids de fin

Weight of noble metal contained in a currency. Example .130402 €: weight of the coin: 10 g, title: 800 %, weight of pure or fine silver: 8,00 g

Potin

Mixture of mean materials with lead, with tin and sometimes with money often used for the Gallic currencies

Pre-serie

The last stage of the development of a monetary series, generally struck in very small series for presentation to the officials who take the definitive decision of manufacturing

Primitive currency

Objects serving as currency (shells, etc.) before the appearance of the coin

Quality

Proportion of noble metal (gold, silver or platinum) entering the composition of a currency.

Rating

Reference value close to the retail price from which a private individual can reasonably buy a currency. A calculated quotation implies the existence of a reasonable number of buyers and sellers as well as available, highly-rated copies of the currency in sufficient amount. If is missing buyers, sellers or currencies, we cannot consider that there is a quotation but one or several references of obtained prices. These can be very different from each other, including for the same copy. Naturally, the quotations address the general public: a specialized collector will can without outbidding it's a pity well over the quotation to assure his purchase, the acquisition of a precise vintage year being more important for him than for a buyer who looks for only a copy of the type

Refining

Art to cleanse metals by freeing them of their alloy.

Removal

Action to remove from the traffic a coin. The coin so loses its official rate but can be again exchanged for sorts with banking institutions capable of making it

Restricking

Indicate the fact of re-striking a new type on an already existing coin. The currency contains then very often rests of engraving of the former vintage wine on which it was refrappée

Royal

Currency made and used in the time of the monarchy

Scroll

Edge of the obverse or the lapel of a coin, in projection towards the reliefs of the face

Slice

Sometimes smooth, splined circular circumference or carrying inscriptions established by the thickness of the currency. A coin of an exceptional state of preservation has to be kept by the slice, between the thumb and the index and its slice must be "sharp"

Slice A / Slice B

All the coins which concern a registration the slice exist generally in two forms: coin with slice A and coin with slice B. The distinction is easily made: it is enough to you to read under every concerned type described in the pages of the catalog how we define "the slice in the place" and to look how it is necessary to put your coin to have the slice "in the place". If, when you look at your coin with the obverse at the top as the following photo illustrates him and that the slice is in the place, you are in the presence of a slice A. If it is necessary to you to have the lapel at the top to read the slice to the place, then, you have a slice B. See the definitions of "obverse" and "lapel". In case of doubt, know that in any circumstance, we always illustrate the obverse to the left and the lapel to the right … Thus you cannot make a mistake!

Spawn

Indicate the loss of weight of a currency bound to its traffic. For example, the average spawn of a Napoleon yet 20 franc is 0,25 %; what means that the equivalent of a Napoleon 20 gold francs is lost every 400 coins

Specimen

These coins to the standard type and carrying no particular mark are made, besides the authorized quantity, to serve as samples of the production. It is the inheritance of the former accounting tradition which obliged the monetary workshops of the Ancien Régime to put, in special boxes, a precise quantity of coins taken in every delivery and to send the box for control to the Court of the Currencies of which raised the workshop

Spintria

Token used in Ancient Rome as entrance fee in the Roman brothels called "Brothels"

Splines

Streak situated on the slice of a said coin with "fluted slice"

Stamp

Instrument carrying in relief engraving a motive to be added in a corner, different, letter or detail

State of conservation

Defines the degree of wear of a currency. The state of preservation has to be known to be able to determine the value of a coin. Six states are listed this day: well ( B ), very Well ( TB), very very Good ( TTB), Magnificent ( SUP), Magnificent ( SPL), Fleur De Coin ( FDC). More precision on this page

Streak with fitting

After its manufacturing, action to streak a too heavy currency with a file to reduce its too high weight. To note that it to proceed tended to become scarce enormously after Charles X

Strike

According to the cases, this term can indicate the process which allows to obtain the imprint of a subject engraved on a custard tart, either a quantity of emitted currencies, either more generically an emission monétaire. Action to strike a custard tart between two corners to obtain a coin

Strike medal or currencies

For the French currencies of the XIXth and XXth centuries, the orientation of corners is top-to-tail (at 6 am). For monnaies, the strike is in medal (at 12 am) according to the German tradition. See "axis"

Strike of event

Currency struck in strong power to highlight its slightest details and present a coin to the ideal relief

Stuffed

Custard tart of bronze or metal covered with a fine film of gold or money and used by the counterfeiters to make a counterfeit money

Tanned Blank

Indicate a coin sides of which were polished before being struck. The currency so struck has an aspect "mirror". Intended for the officials in the XIXth century then for the collectors in the XXth, currencies in tanned custard tarts are particularly appreciated today

Theoretical weight

Official weight of a currency defined by a legislative text. A tolerance is however granted to the directors of the monetary workshops

Tirage

Emitted quantity (for a type or given vintage wine, for example)

Title

Content of fine metal, expressed in thousandth, contained in a currency. Example: a currency in 900 % of money contains 900 thousandth of silver and 100 thousandth of mean metal. In the case of a currency compound of several "precious" metals, we indicate in note the title of every metal

Token

Name given to a coin without any in full discharge power. A token serves to stand out or to matter but never to pay

Treflage

(Also says to itself cap) currency resulting from a strike made twice. If the tréflage is light, he can have there that a quite small part of the currency which is divided into halves; if the tréflage is more important, the currency can be then totally deformed

Try

Currency struck in very small quantity with new corners and intended to present to the public and to the officials a new monetary type after the adoption of this one. The try should not be confused with the pre-series, in theory struck before the manufacturing of the decided type, while the try is struck in theory once the taken decision

Unbalanced (strike)

Strike due to an unscrewed place and having engendered a currency the axis of which is not the theoretical axis. Formally, we represent the obverse to the left " to the place " and the lapel to the right such as it is when we make the currency revolve according to the axis " 6 hours-12 hours ". We measure the importance of the désaxage in hours or in degrees: a currency is said " unbalanced at 4 am " when the lapel clocks at 4 am when the obverse clocks at 12 am. In this case, we can also say that the gap is 120 degrees

Velvet of strike

Consequence of the wear of corners on a currency at the time of its manufacturing. A corner beginning to be used leash of small undulations on a coin coming to be struck. The velvet of strike is the consequence of this wear

Vintage

Year appearing on the currency. The vintage wine registered on the coin does not correspond necessarily in the year of effective strike, nor on that of the entry into service

Weight

Currencies have quite a theoretical mass, said "weight" by misuse of language. The wear and the evolution of the manufacturings make that the weighing of a coin can give a result slightly different from the theoretical weight

 

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Last edited: 26 mar 2019